Antennas & Coax
When you first start after getting your license, you will most likely get a hand held transceiver, such as the recommended Yaesu FT-60. These usually come with a short antenna encased in plastic or rubber, commonly called "rubber duck" antennas. These are not very good, so your first move antenna-wise should be to get a "whip" antenna, which greatly improves the signal.
These antennas can be installed on your car, on the roof of your house, or on a painter pole for a mobile station.
Base Station Antennas
While a step up from the hand held, base stations still need good antennas. There are various types, but they all have to be connected via coax cable which can be a difficult proposition if you do not know which kind of coax to get.
High Frequency (HF) Antennas
These antennas are designed for very long distance communications around the world. They can be equipped with rotators so they can aim the signal anywhere in the country or globe. Many HF antennas are horizontal dipole wires raised in the air. This one is a Yagi design.